Alexander the Great became King of Macedonia at the age of 20, when his father was assassinated. A superior tactician, Alexander devoted his reign to securing Macedonia’s borders and conquering other kingdoms, annexing them to his own land. Alexander was considered a ruthless leader; he executed many of those who opposed him.Livius: Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great conquered many lands, including the Persian Empire, Greece, Thrace, Syria, Egypt (which had been under Persian rule) and India. Following his successful battles, Alexander kept the local leaders in charge of their land, but under Alexander’s control.History.com: Alexander the Great – Biographies
Legend has it that Bucephalus was a wild horse that could not be tamed. At twelve years old, Alexander observed that the horse was simply afraid of his own shadow, and was able to calm him and ride him successfully. Bucephalus later carried Alexander into every battle he fought, until the horse’s death in 326 B.C. from wounds acquired in the Battle of Hydaspes.Livius.org: Alexander and Bucephalus
- Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a King of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
- He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, until by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to Egypt and into northwest India.
- He was undefeated in battle and is considered one of history’s most successful military commanders.
- When he succeeded his father to the throne in 336 BC, after Philip was assassinated, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army.
- In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire, ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years.
- He subsequently overthrew the Persian King Darius III and conquered the entirety of the First Persian Empire.
- Alexander was born on the sixth day of the ancient Greek month of Hekatombaion, which probably corresponds to 20 July 356 BC, although the exact date is not known, in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon.
- According to the ancient Greek biographer Plutarch, Olympias, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt, causing a flame that spread “far and wide” before dying away.
- Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander.
- Aristotle taught Alexander and his companions about medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art.
- During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip’s trusted generals.
- At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece.
- Alexander the Great, although a generous man in victory, eventually recognized the power that he was capable of when he would defeat an enemy in war.
- As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius’ successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander.
- Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate (“The Furthest”) in modern Tajikistan.
- When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater, an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip II’s “Old Guard”, in charge of Macedon.