Anne Frank was born Annelies Marie Frank on June12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany. She lived there with her parents, Otto and Edith, and her older sister, Margot, until the Nazi seizure of power in Germany in 1933. Because of the Nazi anti-Jewish decrees that made it increasingly unsafe for Jews to live in Germany, Anne’s father opened a branch of his business in Amsterdam that same year, and the Frank family relocated there.
Adolph Hitler conquered Holland in 1940, and the Nazis imposed their anti-Semitic policies, severely restricting the lives and freedom of movement of Dutch Jews. Otto recognized the impending danger and began to prepare and stock an annex behind his business as a hiding place from the Nazis.
Anne and her family moved into the achterhuis, or “secret annex,” on July 5, 1942. They were joined there by another family of three, along with an elderly man. Four of Otto’s friends and businesscolleagues Johannes Kleiman, Victor Kugler, Jan Gies and Miep Gies acted as helpers for the eight people in the secret annex, smuggling in food and clothing. This they did at great personal risk of arrest for helping Jews.
The Frank family, along with the four other inhabitants of the secret annex, remained in hiding until Aug. 4, 1944, when their refuge was revealed to the Nazis by an anonymous caller. The Nazis deported the eight first to Westerbork detention and transit camp on the German border on Aug. 8 and from there to the Auschwitz concentration camp in German-occupied Poland on Sept. 3, 1944. Otto Frank was separated from his wife and daughters upon arrival. They all survived the selection, watching as others were sent to their deaths in the gas chambers. In Auschwitz, prisoners, including the Franks, were used as slave labor. Otto was the only one of the Frank family to survive the Holocaust.
Anne and Margot Frank were relocated along with 8,000 women to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany on Oct. 28, 1944, as the Soviet forces advanced. Edith Frank was left behind and later died of starvation at Auschwitz. In June 1943, Bergen-Belsen had been redesignated as Aufenthaltslager (holding camp) to avoid inspection by international committees. Average life expectancy of inmates in Bergen-Belsen was nine months; the overcrowded conditions caused deaths from disease, the typhus epidemic in particular, and malnutrition. The camp, designed to hold 10,000 inmates, contained 41,520 prisoners by March 1945, the month Anne Frank and her sister Margot died. The number of deaths at Bergen-Belsen that March was 18,168. The bodies of these victims were buried in mass graves; the location of Anne and Margot Frank’s grave is unknown, although there is now a memorial to Anne and Margot Frank at the former Bergen-Belsen site.
Both Margot and Anne Frank contracted epidemic typhus at Bergen-Belsen. Epidemic typhus causes high fever, severe joint and muscle pain and headache, low blood pressure, cough, chills, rash, stupor and delirium. Witnesses described Anne as bald, emaciated and shivering. They said that Anne believed that her parents were dead and so she lost the will to live. Other witnesses testified that in March 1945 they had seen Margot fall from her bunk in her weakened state and die from the shock of the fall. Anne died a few days later. Bergen-Belsen was liberated by British troops on April 15, 1945.
Anne Frank is widely known mainly from the diary that she wrote during her two years in hiding in the secret annex in Amsterdam. She had received the diary from her parents for her 13th birthday, about a month before the family went into hiding. Her diary was left behind in the annex when her family was arrested. Miep Gies, one of the people helping the Franks while they were in hiding, kept the diary for Anne. It was published after the war under the title “The Diary of a Young Girl.”
The Timeline Will Help Answer Questions About Anne Frank Such As
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- Concentration camp where Anne Frank died?
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Timeline of the Life of Anne Frank
1929: When was Anne Frank Born? Annelies Marie “Anne” Frank is born in Frankfurt am Main, Germanyto Otto Frank and Edith Holländer on June 12, 1929.
January 30, 1933 : Adolf Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany and the first anti-Jewish laws are established
April 1933: Nazi Boycott of Jewish owned shops.
June 1933: Otto and Edith Frank realize they need to leave Germany and make plans to go to Holland.
January 1934: Otto Frank begins working at the Opekta Worksand finds an apartment on the Merwedeplein in Amsterdam
February 1934: Edith, Margot and Anne leave Germany and join Otto in Amsterdam
February 1934: Anne Frank enrolls in a Montessori school in Amsterdam.
August 19, 1934: Adolf Hitler becomes Fuhrer of Germany.
September 15, 1935: Germany passes the Nuremburg Race Laws that deprive German Jews of their citizenship, their businesses, and their right to education
July 1938: The United States and 32 other countries meet to discuss the growing Jewish refugee crisis but no country offers to take in Jewish refugees
November 9 and 10, 1938: Kristallnacht, The Night of Broken Glass 30,000 Jews are arrested and sent to concentration camps.
May 10, 1940: The Germans invade and occupy the Netherlands and order that Jewish children could attend only Jewish schools so Anne Frank and her sister were enrolled at the Jewish Lyceum
January 8, 1941: Dutch Jews are forbidden access to movie theaters or use public transport preventing Anne Frank from enjoying her favorite pastime
April 1941: All Dutch Jews are forced to wear yellow stars.
June 12, 1942: Anne receives an autograph book from her father for her birthday and Anne Frank decides to use it as a diary.
July 5, 1942: Anne’s older sister is ordered to report for relocation to a labor camp
July 6, 1942: The Frank family go into hiding in Amsterdam because of Margot’s deportation order.
August 1, 1944: The final entry is made in the diary of Anne Frank
August 5, 1944: They were all sent to an overcrowded prison on the Weteringschans where they stayed for two nights
August 7, 1944: They were sent to Westerbork transit camp and assigned to the Punishment Barracks for hard labor.
September 3, 1944: They are all sent in a cattle car to Auschwitz. Once there, the men are separated from the women.
October 28, 1944: Anne and Margot are transported to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
January 6, 1945: Anne’s mother, Edith Frank dies of starvation at Auschwitz.
January 27, 1945: The Russian Allies liberate the remaining survivors in Auschwitz, including Otto Frank.
April 1945: Anne Frank died at 15 of typhus during her imprisonment in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp just a few weeks before its liberation. How many Jewish children died in the Holocaust? Anne was one of more than 1 million Jewish children who died in the Holocaust.
June 3, 1945: Otto Frank returns to Amsterdam, not knowing whether his family are still alive
October 24: Otto Frank receives word that Anne and Margot died at Bergen-Belsen.
1947: When was the Diary of Anne Frank Published? Anne’s diary, Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl is published in Amsterdam.
May 3, 1960: The Anne Frank House is opened in Amsterdam
Anne Frank Quotes
- It’s really a wonder that I haven’t dropped all my ideals, because they seem so absurd and impossible to carry out. Yet I keep them, because in spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart.
- Laziness may appear attractive, but work gives satisfaction.
- I soothe my conscience now with the thought that it is better for hard words to be on paper than that Mummy should carry them in her heart.
- I don’t think of all the misery but of the beauty that still remains.
- Boys will be boys. And even that wouldn’t matter if only we could prevent girls from being girls.
- Everyone has inside of him a piece of good news. The good news is that you don’t know how great you can be! How much you can love! What you can accomplish! And what your potential is!
- Think of all the beauty still left around you and be happy.
- Whoever is happy will make others happy too.
- We all live with the objective of being happy; our lives are all different and yet the same.