Recombinant DNA (rDNA) Facts

DNA (or deoxyribonucleic acid) is the molecule that carries genetic information. It is part of a class of molecules commonly referred to as polynucleotides, given their long chains of nucleotides, and consists of two polynucleotide strands twisting around each other. Each strand stores information in the linear sequence of its nucleotides. What is Recombinant DNA (rDNA) Recombinant DNA (rDNA) […]

Metabolic Process and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the aerobic metabolic process. Oxidative phosphorylation is a metabolic pathway (a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell) that uses energy released by the oxidation to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is a multifunction nucleotide used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often referred to as the “molecular unit of currency.” It is an organic compound […]

Chromosomes Structure, Function, and Number

Chromosomes are the structures that carry the genetic information in a cell. In eukaryotes, chromosomes are found in the cell nucleus and are made up of one very long, linear DNA molecule wrapped tightly around associated proteins. Each chromosome may contain several thousand genes. In prokaryotes (organisms without a defined nucleus, such as bacteria), chromosomes are circular pieces of coiled DNA. How is […]

Facts About The Genetic Code For Kids

The genetic code is a set of complex instructions that are coded into all genetic materials, including DNA and mRNA. These detailed instructions tell the cells how they should grow and develop. On a more technical level, genetic code is the chemical language that translates the language of nucleic acids into the language of amino acids.   The instructions, often referred to […]

How does cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cells?

Cytokinesis is a process during which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell (a cell possessing a nucleus) is divided into two daughter cells. This cell division, aside from resulting in more cells, also includes the transmission of DNA from one generation of cells to the next. All living organisms are made up of cells and come from cells which existed previously. New cells come into being via a process called mitosis and result […]

Introversion Theories and Causes

Introversion is a personality type of certain individuals who share common characteristics. Characteristics include self-reliance, thoughtfulness, and being reserved and quiet. Unlike extroverts, the other personality type in the spectrum, who are social by nature, directly and immediately respond to stimuli that are external, and enjoy human interaction, introverts prefer leisure activities that they can do on their own, such […]

Artificial Intelligence (AI) vs. Artificial Life

Artificial intelligence is all around us, from Google’s search algorithm to TiVo, but what about artificial life? Despite concerns about the impending Singularity, science is no closer to achieving sentience in a computer system than it has ever been. What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? AI is, quite simply, the use of a computer to reproduce or […]

Chimpanzees and Man Share Human Personality Traits

The question of whether apes and humans share similar personality traits may been answered during a recent study that indicated the two groups have much in common. Chimpanzees and also orangutans appear to have personalities much like human beings. Researchers in the United Kingdom report that chimpanzees have the same social problems as humans in […]

The Skin Dermis and Epidermis Facts

The skin is comprised of three different layers: the dermis, the subcutaneous tissue, and the epidermis. The bottommost layer, the dermis, supplies the uppermost layer, the epidermis, with the nourishment and oxygen it needs to stay healthy. The epidermis layer of skin is the part of the skin that is visible, and is made up of four […]

Methods of Locomotion Used By Protists

A protist is an organism belonging to the Kingdom Protista. The Kingdom Protista includes a diverse array of organisms, numbered in the estimated range of between 65,000 to 200,000. Protists are all eukaryotes, which are complex cells that feature nuclear membranes, as well as organelles like chloroplasts and mitochondria. They can either be unicellular, one-celled, or multicellular, made […]

Facts about Cell Cytoplasm For Kids

The cytoplasm comprises cytosol – and the organelles – the cell’s internal sub-structures.The concentrated inner area is called the endoplasm and the outer layer is called the cell cortex or the ectoplasm. It remains uncertain how the varied components of the cytoplasm interact to allow movement of particles and organelles while maintaining the cell’s structure. An obvious example of such function […]

The Difference Between Polygenic and Pleiotropy

When multiple (poly) genes unite to result in a single phenotype, this is called “polygenic inheritance.” Examples of traits that are produced by multiple genes are height, shape, weight, color and metabolic rate. Polygenic traits are often recognized by their continuous variation, or small differences. To illustrate, height in humans is a polygenic trait. In one class […]

Facts about DNA for Kids

DNA is a nucleic acid; alongside proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids compose the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler units called nucleotides. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the […]

Cephalopods: Reproduction and Hunting

Cephalopods (literally, “head-foot” in Greek) are members of the mollusk class Cephalopoda, characterized by bilateral body symmetry and a modification of the mollusk foot into the form of an arm or tentacles. With only a few exceptions, cephalopods have short lives characterized by very fast growth. In some cases, they can increase their body mass […]

Facts about Endocytosis For Kids

Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process. Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means. Endocytosis pathways […]

Facts about Mitochondria for Kids

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These structures are described as “the powerhouse of the cell” because they generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks, such as signaling, cellular differentiation, […]

The History of Biotechnology

The origins of biotechnology can be traced to the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution around 10000 years ago. In its earliest forms it included the collection and sowing of selected seeds, trapping eels, domesticating animals and making wine, beer and yogurt. Artificial Selection of Animals During this period humans began selecting and herding animals with […]

Facts About The Cell Membrane for Kids

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular cytoskeleton. Fungi, bacteria […]

Endoplasmic Reticulum Functions and Resources

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is found in eukaryotic cells, those cells possessing a nucleus. It is an extensive labyrinth made up of membranes, accounting for more than half the total membranes in some cells. Endoplasmic means “inside” the cytoplasm, and reticulum comes from a word meaning “network.” The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranous tubules and sacs, of which […]

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Facts

The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a method used in molecular biology and genetics laboratories to amplify specific regions of DNA.  The ability to create millions of artificial copies of a specific piece of DNA in a test tube, from tiny amounts of starting material, makes PCR one of the most widely used laboratory techniques with applications in almost […]

How Mutations Affect Protein Synthesis

In order to understand how mutations affect protein synthesis, it is important to understand the process by which proteins are made (synthesized) and what a mutation is. Both of these occur on the cellular level of all living beings. Steps of Protein Synthesis There are three major protein synthesis steps: 1. Transcription 2. Transferal 3. Translation Every activity carried out by living cells uses one […]

The Difference Between Exocytosis and Endocytosis

Exocytosis is a process in which a cell sends material inside secretory vesicles to be expelled from the cell via the cell membrane. This is also referred to as reverse pinocytosis; pinocytosis is the procedure by which little particles are brought into the cell in small vesicles. Likely contents of these secretory vesicles are soluble proteins to be sent out of the cell and lipids and membrane proteins that are designated […]

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): Its Role in Protein Synthesis

Nucleotides are molecules that join together to make up the structural units of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar and a phosphate. DNA carries the genetic, or hereditary, information of a cell and contains thousands of genes. Each gene has a part in the building of protein molecules. Proteins serve as building blocks of the cells and execute […]

Central Nervous System Facts For Kids

The central nervous system is that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It contains millions of neurons. If you slice through some fresh brain or spinal cord you will find some areas appear grey whilst other ares appear rather white. The white matter consists of axons, it appears […]

How did Henry Turner discover Turner’s Syndrome?

In 1938, Dr. Henry Hubert Turner, a pioneer American endocrinologist, medical practitioner, and educator, published a paper in the Journal of Endocrinology describing what has become known as Turner’s Syndrome (TS). He was the first scientist to describe a condition that affects one in every 2,500 females, having observed a set of common features in some of […]

Asexual Reproduction Facts and Benefits

Reproduction is the biological mechanism by which species give rise to offspring and perpetuate their genetic material. Asexual reproduction is the reproductive process that involves only one organism and results in two or more organisms. Single celled organisms, such as archaea, bacteria and protists, commonly reproduce asexually. Certain fungi and some plants do as well. An advantage of […]

10 Weird Facts about the Human Body

There are many things that are commonly known about the human body and its inner workings, but what about facts that are not so known? If you think you carry all the information there could possibly be about the subject, you might want to sit down and reconsider this previous belief. Below are ten weird […]

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