Marxism–Leninism remains the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos, and Vietnam, and was the official ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) and the other ruling parties making up the Eastern Bloc. Marxism–Leninism first became a distinct philosophical movement in the Soviet Union during the 1920s, when Joseph Stalin and his supporters gained control of the Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks). It rejected the notions, common among Marxists at the time, of world revolution as a prerequisite for building socialism in Russia, and of a gradual transition from capitalism to socialism.
- The internationalism of Marxism–Leninism was expressed in supporting revolutions in foreign countrie.
- It seeks the development of socialism into the full realization of communism, a classless social system with common ownership of the means of production and with full social equality of all members of society.
- A key point of conflict between Marxism–Leninism and other tendencies is that whereas Marxism–Leninism defines Stalin’s USSR as a workers’ state, other types of communists and Marxists in general deny this, and Trotskyists specifically consider it a deformed or degenerated workers’ state.
- To develop socialism, the economy went through a period of massive industrialization, in which much of the peasant population moved into urban areas while those remaining in the rural areas began working in the new collective agricultural system.
- Marxism–Leninism descends from the Bolshevik (“Majority”) faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) that was founded in the RSDLP’s Second Congress in 1903.