Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of eastern North Africa, which settled along the lower reaches of the Nile River. It was part of a larger set of the Nile Valley Civilizations, of which regions south of Egypt are a part. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3000 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia.
Timeline of Events in Egypt
circa 7,000 BC: Settlement of Nile Valley begins.
circa 3,000 BC: Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt unite. Successive dynasties witness flourishing trade, prosperity and the development of great culture. Hieroglyphics is used as an instrument of state.
2500 BC: Construction of the pyramids is a formidable engineering achievement.
669 BC: Assyrians from Mesopotamia conquer and rule Egypt.
525 BC: Persian conquest.
332 BC: Alexander the Great, of ancient Macedonia, conquers Egypt, founds Alexandria.
31 BC: Egypt comes under Roman rule.
642 AD: Arab conquest of Egypt.
969: Cairo established as capital.
1250-1517: Mameluke rule.
1517: Egypt absorbed into the Turkish Ottoman empire.
1798: Napoleon Bonaparte’s forces invade but are repelled by the British and the Turks in 1801.
1882: British troops take control of Egypt.
1914: Egypt becomes a British protectorate.
1922: Fu’ad I becomes King of Egypt and Egypt gains its independence.
1948: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Syria attack the new state of Israel.
1949 February: Hasan al-Banna of the Muslim Brotherhood is assassinated.
1949: Committee of the Free Officers’ Movement formed.
1952 January: At least 20 people are killed in anti-British riots in Cairo.
1952: King Faruq abdicates in favour of his son Fu’ad II.
1952: Gamal Abdul Nasser leads a coup by the Free Officers’ Movement, now known as the July 23 Revolution.
1953 June: Egypt is declared a Republic by Najib.
1954: Nasser becomes prime minister and later, in 1956, president.
1954: Evacuation Treaty signed.
1956 July: Nasser nationalises the Suez Canal to fund the Aswan High Dam.
1958 February: Egypt and Syria join to form the United Arab Republic.
1961: Syria withdraws from the union with Egypt but Egypt remains known as the UAR.
1965 March: King Faruq dies in Rome.
1967 May: Egypt, Jordan sign defence pact.
1967 June: Six-Day War in which Israel defeats forces of Egypt, Jordan and Syria.
1971: Treaty of Friendship between Egypt and the Soviet Union is signed.
1971: Egypt’s new constitution is introduced and the country is renamed the Arab Republic of Egypt.
1971: The Aswan High Dam is completed.
1975 June: The Suez Canal is re-opened.
1976: Anwar al-Sadat ends the Treaty of Friendship with the Soviet Union.
1978 September: Camp David Accords for peace with Israel are signed.
1979 March: The peace treaty between Egypt and Israel is signed.
1981 6 October: Anwar al-Sadat is assassinated by Jihad members.
1981 October: A National Referendum approves Husni Mubarak as the new president.
1987 October: Mubarak begins his second term.
1993 October: Mubarak begins his third term in office.
1995 June: Mubarak is the target of an assassination attempt in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, upon his arrival at a summit of the Organisation of African Unity.
1997: 58 tourists are killed by gunmen in front of the Temple of Hatshepsut near Luxor. It is alleged that Egypt’s Islamic Group is responsible.
2002 February: Hundreds of passengers are killed after their train catches fire south of Cairo.
2004 November: Funeral of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat is held in Cairo.
2005 February-April: Pro-reform and opposition activists mount anti-government demonstrations.
2005 May: Referendum vote backs a constitutional amendment that will allow multiple candidates to stand in presidential elections.
2005 23 July: Scores of people are killed in bomb attacks in the Red Sea resort of Sharm al-Sheikh.
2005 December: Parliamentary polls end with clashes between police and supporters of the opposition Muslim Brotherhood.
2006 February: Up to 1,000 people die when a ferry carrying about 1,400 passengers from Saudi Arabia to Egypt sinks in the Red Sea.
2006 August: Egypt praises the way the guerrilla group Hezbollah held out in the war with Israel in Lebanon after earlier questioning its judgement.
2006 November: Egypt is one of at least six Arab countries developing domestic nuclear programmes to diversify energy sources.
2007 April: Amnesty International criticises Egypt’s record on torture and illegal detention.
2008 April: Military courts sentence 25 leading Muslim Brotherhood members to jail terms in crackdown targeting the organisation’s funding.
2008 November: The governing NDP says it will privatise some state firms and distribute free shares to citizens.
2009 April: Egyptian authorities say they arrested 49 people the previous year on suspicion of helping Hezbollah send money and aid to Hamas in Gaza.
2009 May: Egyptian police clash with Coptic Christian pig farmers trying to stop their animals being taken away for slaughter as a precaution against swine flu.
2009 July: Egyptian officials say 25 militants suspected of having al-Qaeda links were arrested for plotting attacks on ships in the Suez Canal.
2009 December: Foreign activists protest in Cairo against Egypt’s refusal to let aid convoys into Gaza.
2010 January: Coptic Christians clash with police after an apparently sectarian shooting outside a church.
2010 February: Former UN nuclear chief Mohammed ElBaradei returns to Egypt and, together with opposition figures and activists, forms a coalition for political change.
2010 June: The Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, Egypt’s largest opposition group, says it may back Mohamed ElBaradei’s political change campaign.
List of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
- Ra is the eagle god of the sun and,he has a falcon head.
- Anubis is the god of mummification
- Bast is the Cat goddess.
- Sehkmet goddess of fire, war and plague
- Serqet is the goddess of scorpions
- Nut is the goddess of sky and stars, mother of gods.
- Geb is the green god of Earth, and vegetation.
- Horus is the god with falcon’s head, god of pharaohs and sky.
- Osiris is the god of the afterlife.
- Isis is the goddess of magic and healing, wife of Osiris.
- Seth is the god of deserts and evil.
- Thoth is the scribe god and the god of forethought, writing, and wisdom.
- Ma’at is the goddess of truth.
- Amun is the god of Thebes, king of gods in New Kingdom.
- Wadjet is the goddess of pregnancy and motherhood, goddess in snake form.
- Anuket is the goddess of river Nile.
- Hathor is the goddess of the moon and children.
- Ptah is the creator god
- Bes is the dwarf god of safe journey
- Sobek is the god of crocodiles.
- Aten is the “king” of the gods