Argentina is a country in South America. It’s the eighth-largest country by land area and the 27th most populous. It’s also a founding member of Mercosur, a trading bloc with Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Argentina is home to some of the world’s most active volcanoes as well as Iguazu Falls – one of the world’s largest waterfalls by volume of water that flows over its edge each year. Argentina has a wide variety of landscapes, ranging from the Andes mountains to the 32-mile-long beaches of the Atlantic Ocean.
Population: About 46 million people live in Argentina (2021)
Capital: Buenos Aires has a population of about 15 million people
Name: Republica Argentina or Argentine Republic, Argentina means ‘land of silver’
Government: Democracy, Republic
Language: Spanish, Italian, English, German, French and indigenous languages
Religion: mainly Christians (Roman Catholics 92%)
Currency: 1 Argentine peso = 100 centavos
History: Spanish explorer Juan Diaz visits the area now called Argentina and claims it for the Spanish crown. In 1535 Buenos Aires is founded by Pedro de Mendoza. Only in 1816, Argentina gained independence from Spain. In 1880 Buenos Aires became capital of Argentina. In the next fifty years from 1880 onwards Argentina was one of the richest nations. In 1982 Argentina went to war with Britain to try to get the Falkland Islands but this was unsuccessful for the Argentines.
Argentina also has a rich history, with pre-Columbian civilizations dating back more than 13,000 years. It’s believed that Argentina was first inhabited by hunter-gatherers near the end of the last Ice Age. Eventually, they settled on what is now Buenos Aires province and began farming crops like corn and squash. These early settlers are known as Paleo Argentinians.
National Flag: blue and white, with a yellow sun on the white band
National Symbols: Sun of May – sun with a face symbol