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Facts About The North Pole For Kids

The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is, subject to the caveats explained below, defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where theEarth’s axis of rotation meets its surface. It should not be confused with the North Magnetic Pole.

  • The North Pole is the northernmost point on Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole.
  • At the North Pole all directions point south; all lines of longitude converge there, so its longitude can be defined as any degree value.
  • While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are almost permanently covered with constantly shifting sea ice.
  • The Earth’s axis of rotation – and hence the position of the North Pole – was commonly believed to be fixed (relative to the surface of the Earth) until, in the 18th century, the mathematician Leonhard Euler predicted that the axis might “wobble” slightly.
  • Around the beginning of the 20th century astronomers noticed a small apparent “variation of latitude,” as determined for a fixed point on Earth from the observation of stars.
  • In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster.
  • In April 1895 the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen struck out for the Pole on skis after leaving Nansen’s icebound ship Fram.
  • Support for Peary came again in 2005, however, when British explorer Tom Avery and four companions recreated the outward portion of Peary’s journey with replica wooden sleds and Canadian Eskimo Dog teams, reaching the North Pole in 36 days, 22 hours – nearly five hours faster than Peary.
  • The secret report’s alleged en-route solar sextant data were inadvertently so impossibly overprecise that he excised all these alleged raw solar observations out of the version of the report finally sent to geographical societies five months later (while the original version was hidden for 70 years), a realization first published in 2000 by the University of Cambridge after scrupulous refereeing.
  • In May 1937 the world’s first North Pole ice station, North Pole-1, was established by Soviet scientists 20 kilometres (13 mi) from the North Pole.
  • The plane was piloted by David Cecil McKinley of the Royal Air Force.
  • The United States Navy submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571) crossed the North Pole on August3, 1958.
  • They departed from Cape Crozier, Ellesmere Island, on February 17, 1982 and arrived at the geographic North Pole on April 10, 1982.
  • On September 7, 1991, the German research vessel Polarstern and the Swedish icebreaker Oden reached the North Pole as the first conventional powered vessels.
  • The first attempt at underwater exploration of the North Pole was made by a Russian firefighter and diver Andrei Rozhkov with a support of Diving Club of Moscow State University on April 22, 1998 but ended in fatality.
  • His later attempt to paddle a kayak to the North Pole in late 2008, following the erroneous prediction of clear water to the Pole, was stymied when his expedition found itself stuck in thick ice after only three days.
  • A civil twilight period of about two weeks occurs before sunrise and after sunset, a nautical twilight period of about five weeks occurs before sunrise and after sunset and an astronomical twilight period of about seven weeks occurs before sunrise and after sunset.
  • There is no permanent human presence at the North Pole, and no particular time zone has been assigned.
  • Polar expeditions may use any time zone that is convenient, such as Greenwich Mean Time, or the time zone of the country they departed from.