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Titanium (Ti): Fun Facts and Information About the Element

What is the symbol? Ti
What is the atomic number? 22
What is the atomic weight? 47.867
What is the melting point in Celsius? 1660
What is the boiling point in Celsius? 3287
What is the density (g/cm3)? 4.54
What percent of the earths crust? 0.62
What year was it discovered? 1791
Who discovered the element? The Reverend William Gregor
What group is the element in? 4
What is the electron configuration? [Ar] 3d2 4s2
What is the ionization energy? 6.8281
What element category is it in? Transition Elements

Where is Titanium Found?

Titanium is present in meteorites and the sun. Rocks obtained during the Apollo 17 lunar mission showed presence of 12.1% TiO2; rocks obtained during earlier Apollo missions show lower percentages.

Titanium oxide bands are prominent in the spectra of M-type stars. The element is the ninth most abundant in the crust of the earth. Titanium is almost always present in igneous rocks and in the sediments derived from them.

It occurs in the minerals rutile, ilmenite, and sphene, and is present in titanates and in many iron ores. Titanium is present in ash of coal, in plants, and in human body.

The metal was a laboratory curiosity until Kroll, in 1946, showed that titanium could be produced commercially by reducing titanium tetrachloride with magnesium. This method is still largely used for producing the metal. The metal can be purified by decomposing the iodide.

What is Titanium Used For?

Titanium is important as an alloying agent with aluminum, molybdenum, manganese, iron, and other metals. Alloys of titanium are principally used for aircraft and missiles where lightweight strength and ability to withstand extremes of temperature are important.

Titanium is as strong as steel, but 45% lighter. It is 60% heavier than aluminum, but twice as strong.

Titanium has potential use in desalination plants for converting sea water into fresh water. The metal has excellent resistance to sea water and is used for propeller shafts, rigging, and other parts of ships exposed to salt water. A titanium anode coated with platinum has been used to provide cathodic protection from corrosion by salt water.

It is produced artificially for use as a gemstone, but it is relatively soft.

Titanium dioxide is extensively used for both house paint and artist’s paint, because it is permanent and has good covering power. Titanium paint is an excellent reflector of infrared, and is extensively used in solar observatories where heat causes poor viewing conditions.

Titanium tetrachloride is used to iridize glass. This compound fumes strongly in air and has been used to produce smoke screens.